Epichlorohydrin (106-89-8) is a chlorinated epoxy compound mainly used in the manufacture of glycerin and epoxy resins. It is also used in epichlorohydrin the manufacture of elastomers, glycidyl ethers, cross-linked food starches, surfactants, plasticizers, dyes, pharmaceutical products, oil emulsifiers, lubricants, adhesives, etc.; as resins, gums, cellulose, Solvent for esters, paints and lacquers; Used as a stabilizer in chlorine-containing substances such as rubber, pesticide preparations and solvents; Used as an insect fumigant in the paper and pharmaceutical industries.
After ingestion or inhalation, epichlorohydrin is rapidly absorbed into the body through the skin. Epichlorohydrin itself is a reactive epoxide that is metabolized by conjugation to glutathione and hydration by epoxide hydrolases. The same hemoglobin adducts have been detected in humans and rats. Epichlorohydrin is widely distributed throughout the body. In rodents, the highest tissue concentrations occurred in the nose after inhalation and in the stomach after ingestion. In rats, regardless of the route of exposure, most of the absorbed epichlorohydrin is rapidly metabolized, partly excreted via the lungs as carbon dioxide and partly excreted in the urine as water-soluble compounds.
Epichlorohydrin rubber includes homopolymers of epichlorohydrin and copolymers with ethylene oxide. There is also a terpolymer of epichlorohydrin, ethylene oxide, and a monomer used to introduce carbon double bonds into the chain as cure sites. CO is the ISO name for the homopolymer and ECO is the ISO name for the ethylene oxide copolymer. GECO is the name for a terpolymer, usually allyl glycidyl ether. Monomer and polymer structures are given in Figures 12.19–12.21
The ratio of monomers is adjusted to provide the desired properties. Epichlorohydrin monomers provide heat and ozone resistance, fuel and oil resistance, and gas permeation resistance.
Ethylene monomers lower the glass transition temperature, reduce heat resistance, and impart static dissipative properties. Unsaturated monomers introduce sites for sulfur and peroxide cure.
Manufacturer and Trade Names: Hercules, Inc. Herclor, B.F. Goodrich Co. and Zeon Chemicals, Hydrin®.
Applications and Uses: Fuel Hose/Liner (Battery), Air Duct, Drain Duct, Static Dissipative Roller, Cryogenic Fuel Handling Curb Hoses, Diaphragms, Gaskets/O-rings, Vibration Absorbers, Boots, Closed Cells Sponge and Fabric Coated/Belts