In the treatment of patients having long-term indwelling bladder catheterization, encrustation of Indwelling Catheters continues to be a significant issue. Crystalline deposits clog the catheter lumen, allowing urine to either leak around the catheter's exterior or be trapped in the bladder, which causes distension and reflux to the upper tract.

Serious clinical bouts of pyelonephritis, septicaemia, and endotoxic shock may occur if these clogged catheters are not removed. All Indwelling Catheters types now in use are susceptible to this issue, and there are currently no reliable solutions for either its prevention or management. In many instances, the replacement catheters continually cause blockages, and the patients are labelled as "blockers" as a result.

When receiving long-term catheterization, up to 50% of patients will develop catheter encrustation and obstruction. The findings of Kohler-Ockmore and Feneley provided information on the prevalence of the problem. Over the course of 6 months, they monitored 457 long-term catheterized patients receiving community care in the Bristol region and noted 506 emergency referrals, the majority of which were for catheter blockages. Thus, the issue endangers the health of several patients and places a significant burden on a health service's resources.

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