Mountain meteorology is a branch of science that studies the effects of mountains on the atmosphere. Mountain effects on the atmosphere span all scales of motion, including small scales of motion like turbulence, local scales like cloud formation on individual peaks and ranges, and global scales like the Asian and North American monsoons (Shapiro, 28). In
many parts of the world, the presence of mountains causes a variety of weather-related phenomena. The combined effects of
mountains or hills are perceived to be related to air flow obstruction. The obstruction of air flow can be explained best paper writing service reddit as follows: when there is enough wind, the air meets a massive obstacle and is forced to either go around or over the obstacle, causing waves in the flow of air (Kouznetsov, 2012). The waves produced when air is blocked by an obstacle, such as a mountain or hill, exhibit similar characteristics to those seen when a river washes over a boulder. The presence of mountain ranges such as the Sierras in North and South America creates a barrier in the path of westerly winds that prevail in the middle latitudes.
The katabatic wind flows are a natural Antarctic feature. The katabatic winds always occur above a cold sloped surface, and the winds occur when cold air on the top of a mountainous region or glacier begins to descend due to its higher density than the milder air at the mountain's lower part (Doodge, 2010). The gravity concept explains why cold air accelerates down the mountain to the point where, in extreme cases, such as in Antarctica, the winds have the potential to reach hurricane force levels. The geographical explanation for katabatic flows in Antarctica is that they form when cold air masses begin to descend onto the ice cap and spread along the ground surface. The descending cold air masses encounter nothing to stop them, resulting in the formation of sheet-like rivers of air and the blowing of snow. The velocity of the katabatic winds increases as they flow down the ice cap, and the Coriolis force decreases the flow of air from the downhill direction (Doodge, 2010). The blowing snow across the ice cap gives the impression that one is in a never-ending storm, but when one looks up, the sky is mostly sunny and blue, with no signs of an impending storm. The katabatic flows keep the air flowing for a long time until the cold air mass descending the mountainous region dissipates. The presence of a countervailing push from the ice shelf emanating from the side of the mountains may also stop or dispel the katabatic flows. Regular storms have short-lived frontal systems, but katabatic flows can last for days (Doodge, 2010).
Katabatic winds or flows are also defined as downslope winds caused by the surface cooling effects of mountain meteorology. Katabatic flows are typically found near the surface of a stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer and have a maximum range of a few meters to a few hundreds of meters. When a path of cooled air meets a significant slope, katabatic winds are observed at the same latitude of the globe. An interesting fact is that the katabatic winds in Antarctica are the strongest of their kind in the world (Kouznetsov, 2012). The shape of the land in Antarctica contributes to the strength of the region's katabatic winds. The Antarctica katabatic winds occur when cold, dense air at the tops of ice sheets flows down the coastal slopes due to gravity forces. Because it is the world's highest and coldest continent, Antarctica is known for producing the most powerful and long-lasting katabatic flows (Brockett, 25).
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There are numerous factors that contribute to the formation of katabatic flows in Antarctica. The appearance of the katabatic winds in Antarctica is greatly aided by radiative cooling. Antarctica is an ice dome with a plateau in its interior that slopes towards its perimeter at sea level and is about 4 meters high (Doodge, 2010). The fact that Antarctica is the coldest place on the planet is due to the fact that any warming radiation received from the sun is reflected back into space by the massive ice and snow cover. Because of the high reflectivity of snow in Antarctica, the air layer near the surface is cooled for the majority of the year. Because the lower layers of the atmosphere in Antarctica appear to be in direct contact with the ice cap, the atmospheric air becomes cold, and the colder the air, the denser it becomes, causing the katabatic flows to accelerate.
Thermal inversion depicts how air near the ground cools while air in the upper atmosphere warms. High and persistent inversion conditions develop in Antarctica at around 10 meters, allowing air much warmer than at ground level to reach temperatures of up to 30 degrees Celsius (Brockett, 25). Thermal inversion and radiative cooling cause the surface layer of air to be colder than the free air at the same altitude downslope of the ice cap, resulting in gravitational air movement down the slopes (Brockett, 25). Cold air masses, katabatic winds, contract and become heavier than previous masses as they begin to move down the slope due to the inclining ice cap. The katabatic winds of Antarctica vary depending on location, but they are strongest along the continent's coasts.
Antarctica is known around the world as the windiest place on the planet. There are various katabatic winds that blow across Antarctica, ranging from inversion winds at the South Pole to winds funneled between the islands that cover the coastal region. The other extreme category of wind in Antarctica is violent katabatic blizzards, which have the potential to develop at breakneck speed (McGonigal, 21). Inversion winds contribute to the formation and maintenance of katabatic winds, and they are caused by the gravitational forcing of cold air masses on an inclined terrain. The steeper the ground's slope, the greater the flow of cold air masses, and the stable air masses described as inversion winds become purely driven by gravitational force and friction-retarded wind existing in the boundary layer. Data collected and observations made on the wind at auxiliary meteorological stations indicate that winds on steeper slopes take on characteristics of purely-driven flow.
The prevailing katabatic winds are included in the other category of katabatic winds. Unlike inversion winds, ordinary katabatic winds have a high variability of wind speed and do not typically assume a steady state. According to meteorological stations, the ordinary katabatic winds have high rates that alternate irregularly with periods of weak winds or calms (Renfrew, 26). Ordinary katabatic winds have been observed near East Antarctica's coastal regions. The discontinuity in the flow of ordinary katabatic winds is attributed by researchers to the typography of Antarctica's upwind terrain. The persistence of regular katabatic wind flows is dependent on the convergence of cold air currents, which is aided by a drainage area of sufficient size and inclination (Hay, 24).
The massive katabatic winds are included in the last category of Antarctica katabatic flows. The massive katabatic winds blow at extreme speeds for days or weeks at a time. There are three factors that influence the strength of the heavy katabatic winds. Antarctica's topography features upwind terrain, which contributes to the formation and persistence of the convergence field of motion. The Antarctica plateau creates a large drainage area that is ideal for the formation of strong katabatic winds (Shapiro, 28). Because radiative cooling allows for the efficient production of cold boundary layer air, the strong radiative cooling in the Antarctica region greatly contributes to the formation of the great katabatic winds. Most of Antarctica's coastal regions have smaller drainage areas on a plateau with more divergence than convergence characteristics, resulting in heavy katabatic winds (Brockett, 25).
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The ferocious winds that define the Antarctica continent tarnish the region's reputation as the most inhospitable continent on the planet. Local blizzards caused by strong katabatic winds demonstrate the life-threatening wind-chill temperatures that pose a risk to those wishing to visit the Antarctica region (Renfrew, 26). As a result of the extraordinary katabatic winds, traveling and other outdoor activities are practically impossible in Antarctica during the winter season.
The presence of strong katabatic winds significantly reduces visibility in Antarctica. The cold dense air encountered along Antarctica's coastal areas, which flows down the ice-cap funnels through topographic channels at extremely high speeds, lifts snow off the ground, reducing visibility to a few feet high (Renfrew, 26). The wind-chill factor is a phenomenon that shows that as the wind speed increases, so does the rate at which the body loses heat. The wind-chill factor measures the cooling effect of the wind, which affects the body's normal functioning.
Travelers on expeditionary missions in Antarctica are subjected to dramatic weather changes, which can lead to the mission's cancellation. Visitors to Antarctica describe the region as notorious for wind, which is caused by the large Antarctic ice cap, which contributes to the formation of katabatic winds. Strong katabatic flows occur on long glaciers in high latitude areas, where the Coriolis effect deflects the flow of air, influencing turbulent transports in the boundary layer (Renfrew, 26).
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Strong katabatic winds in Antarctica play an important role in the formation of Antarctic bottom water. Antarctic bottom water is typically cold and dense, sinking slowly to the ocean's deepest depths and carrying oxygen with it. The phenomenon occurs when katabatic winds push away sea ice and cool the exposed ice, causing new ice to form. This formation retains the majority of the salt in the ice, making the water beneath the ice the saltiest and densest in the ocean. The Antarctic bottom water, which is usually cold, transports nutrients and oxygen that support sea life thousands of kilometers away from the sea (McGonigal, 21).
Observed stations and research findings in Antarctica reveal several general features of katabatic flows, as discussed in the preceding paragraphs. The behavior of katabatic winds in eastern Antarctica, as well as uphill direction tendencies, demonstrates that they can be attributed to Coriolis force and air density. The causes of katabatic winds are radiative cooling, gravitational force, and inversion, which determine the strength of the winds, resulting in ordinary katabatic winds and heavy katabatic winds. The katabatic winds in Antarctica have an impact on expeditionary missions because they reduce visibility and destabilize tents used for temporary shelter.
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Analysis of Apples
What is now known as Apple Corporation began in 1976 as a garage workbench with the primary goal of developing a personal computer. Apple is now a well-known company and a multibillion-dollar manufacturer of high-end mobile devices, with a catalog that includes iPhones, iPods, and iPads, as well as iMacs and Apple watches, among other things. However, the company's manufacturing line is not limited to hardware. In addition, they develop custom software for their devices. This organization's organizational culture is currently based on the concepts of teamwork and'laser' focus. Employees are encouraged to always work together to achieve the company's set goals and objectives, which generally aim to make the world a better place through technology. Until recently, Apple concentrated on developing technology that could improve the human race's quality of life. This goal explains why the company has fewer brands under its name than its competitors. Apple is known as a business organization that has strong brands that are very satisfying in terms of quality and efficacy, among other things that set the company apart from its competitors.
Apple's Corporate Culture
"Organizational culture entails a set of common understanding, to which an action is organized, of meanings or understandings shared by a group of individuals that are largely implicit among members and are clearly significant and unique to that particular group," write Nelson and Quick (2015). (p.12). Apple's organizational culture is best defined by five pivotal characteristics that are distinct and very specific to the company. Excellence, secrecy, creativity, innovation, and moderate combativeness are among them. Excellence is a critical success factor for Apple, as it is for many other technology-based organizations. Companies that rely on their employees to come up with the best innovations cannot compromise when it comes to employee excellence (Nelson & Quick, 2015). It explains why this company is known for hiring only the best in terms of talent and credentials. If an employee fails to meet the organization's performance expectations, they are fired on the spot at Apple. This means that the company is currently made up of only the best employees in the industry.
In terms of secrecy, it should be noted that Apple has a slew of formidable rivals, the most potent of which is currently Samsung Electronics (Martin, 2016). It means that the company values its privacy in order to prevent competitors from sabotaging its operations. Proprietary information and intellectual property are typically of particular importance in the technology-based industry, necessitating the need to ensure that the company is adequately safeguarded against the possibility of stolen information and innovation. Employees must agree to the policy when hired in order to achieve maximum security. As a result, employees are contractually obligated to uphold the organization's secrecy policy at all times. Secrecy also keeps customers anticipating new products rather than learning about them long before the company is ready to announce or launch them (Nelson & Quick, 2015).
One of the pillars of the organization's operations is creativity best writing services reddit . It is because the company's primary focus is on product design and development, where creativity, in addition to intellectual skills, is a required concept. It explains why it is critical for the company's employees to be creative at all times. Employees with limited creative abilities are frequently unable to fully integrate into the organization because their job is to solve consumer and business needs within the organization without relying on a blueprint to guide them. The organization has been able to create a free and collaborative work environment where new ideas are encouraged and explored collectively, and the best ones are pursued to fruition by basing the corporate culture on creativity. Everyone is important at Apple because everyone contributes to creativity.
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Apple's greatest critical success factor is undeniably innovation (Wakabayashi, 2016). This company is particularly well-known for its innovation within a highly dynamic industry, and it is this that has kept them at the forefront not only in the United States, but also globally. Employees in this organization are not only encouraged, but also well trained, to be innovative in their various roles within the scope of their functions. Companies must frequently deviate from traditional hierarchical cultures and structures that impose limitations as a way of limiting risks associated with diverse decision-making powers within the organization in order to encourage and enable innovation. At Apple, everyone is capable of devising a workable solution to a given problem. Furthermore, while approval is required for certain ideas to be implemented, the company's'working on the same table' policy ensures that all consultations are held on time and that decisions are made as soon as possible. Because of the short time it takes to make innovative decisions, this policy allows the company to remain at the forefront of the technology industry on a consistent basis.
On the basis of the characteristic of moderate combativeness, it is clear that Apple was once a rather aggressive organization. The company's internal environment was strategically designed to challenge and push employees to do their best and beat the competition. However, under Tim Cook, the company is adopting a more approachable and friendly tone, with employees being coerced or wooed to perform better rather than the initial combativeness that defined Steve Jobs (Wakabayashi, 2016). This method has yet to be evaluated in terms of its effectiveness within the company, but it should work quite well.
Apple's Leadership Models
Leadership is the act of creating a vision that others want to be a part of, laying a positive atmosphere where great things can happen, and developing people to achieve their full potential, Nelson and Quick (2015) write (p.188). The most visible concept in leadership within this organization can be seen in Tim Cook's leadership. He has been described as a decisive, thoughtful, charming, and data-driven leader when necessary. This description implies that Tim Cook is a hybrid of transformational and transactional leadership at the helm of the organization. Apple, on the other hand, is a largely transformational organization where people are valued for their contribution to the business process (Cojocaru & Silviu, 2016). Everyone is expected to participate in decision-making, though final decisions are frequently left to the highest levels of organizational power, which currently rest with Tim Cook. It means that the organization's most important leadership concept is based on sharing responsibilities. The freedom granted to employees in terms of participation in innovation and decision-making within the company gives the organization's leaders their power. As a result, while Steve Jobs built the company on bold and visionary leadership, it is now thriving under democratic and rather charismatic leadership in which every individual employee has the ability to influence decisions and thus shape the direction in which the organization is growing. A bold and visionary leadership is one in which the leaders make the majority of the decisions, direct the employees, and take full responsibility for the organization's activities. This was Steve Jobs' style, and it is no longer used within the organization.
Organizational Structure and Design
Given that secrecy is one of this organization's pillars, it is understandable that there are no clear sources regarding the details of this company's design and structure. According to company reports and articles about the company, the organizational design can be divided into two parts. First, there are the sustaining functions, which include, among other things, sales, retail, communications, human resources, and finance. These are the primary functions that are critical to the organization's survival (Nelson & Quick, 2015). Marketing, designs, engineering, operations, and internet software are among the other functions that are highly disruptive. Each of these functions, whether sustaining or disruptive, has a manager who reports directly to the company's CEO. These managers are thus permitted to have supervisors or team leaders within their departments, but they all work together, consulting with the CEO and his vice, as well as the rest of the organization's employees, on a regular basis (Yu, 2013). It means that the overall description of the company's organizational design and structure resembles a wheel, with the CEO at the center and the heads of these other departments surrounding him or her. It should also be noted that the organization was initially reliant on the CEO to serve as a brand manager; however, there is now a head of the brand management department. It means that the CEO's role is more general, but he is no longer in charge of every aspect of the organization, as Steve Jobs was.
Apple's Ethical Issues, Conflict, and Management Concepts
Apple, like any other business, has its fair share of ethical issues, the majority of which originate within the organization. There were numerous cases of employee abuse in the company's overseas manufacturing plants under the previous management system, in which employees reported directly to Steve Jobs. The company had nearly 5,0 employees working under transactional leadership and attempting to reduce production costs. Another issue is how the manager treated the employees who worked directly under him or her. Most employees felt privileged to be a part of the organization, but with Steve Jobs at the helm of power, the combativeness was a little too much. The work environment appeared hostile rather than collaborative (Cojocaru & Silviu, 2016). As a result, conflicts arose not only among employees but also among the leadership. Steve Jobs was particularly known for firing employees impulsively if they did not live up to his expectations while working on a project.
To address this issue, the company is currently emphasizing a number of ethical and managerial concepts aimed at promoting effective conflict resolution in situations where conflict is unavoidable.
First and foremost, Tim Cook is a charismatic leader who, unlike his predecessor, does not take a hands-on approach to all projects . His leadership, on the other hand, entails various interactions with the company's employees, resulting in a system that is more like a family. Conflicts in such a setting are mostly resolved through dialogue. The organization currently operates on an informal basis best essay writing services reddit, with people interacting with one another on a personal level rather than focusing solely on the tasks at hand. In this case, the managerial concept allows for open communication as a means of resolving conflicts.
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In the event of an organizational challenge, it is commendable that Apple's management holds meetings with employees in order to find solutions. The organizational culture is based on creativity and innovation, implying that almost every employee is skilled at problem solving (Yu, 2013). As a result, they are all involved in crisis meetings, with the CEO making the final decisions. In this case, the collaborative environment not only aids in dealing with challenges and conflicts, but also in preventing them. A recent example is the company's feud with Samsung Electronics. The actual outcome of the conflict is unknown, but the company has shown extreme solidarity in the face of Samsung's ethical accusations. Apple's management is currently consulting with employees and lawyers to find ways to counteract all of the moves made against the company.
Apple Inc. is a relatively large and successful company that has recently undergone a leadership transition that has seen the company shift from a transactional entity to the current transformational style. So far, this change has yielded impressive results, including increased employee satisfaction and engagement. To improve this company's organizational behavior, it is critical to recognize that the current leader is doing a better job than his predecessor. Apple's current work environment is far more friendly to employees than it was previously. It simply means that the company will have to continue under Tim Cook's leadership, embracing transformational leadership in which employees are valued assets rather than a means to an end. The employee abuse situation that occurred in the past, for example, is impossible to replicate in the current contexts, given that the leadership now prioritizes employees over numbers. Building relationships, cooperating, and empowering employees to continue innovating and collaborating are the only ways to improve organizational behavior within this organization, both long and short term.
Apple Inc. is a large and successful corporation that has come a long way since its humble beginnings in the 1970s. However, under Steve Jobs, the company's organizational culture and leadership model were initially limited. Steve Jobs, despite being a very bold and tactical leader, did not consider the potential of his employees. Tim Cook, on the other hand, is more concerned with the employees, restructuring the company's leadership to share power and decision-making responsibilities within the organization. The current organizational behavior is thus well-balanced, allowing for effective operations even in Tim Cook's absence. This organizational structure is both effective now and in the future.
The Benefits and Drawbacks of Standardization and Adaptation in Global Marketing
There are several advantages to standardization and global uniformity. Customers, for example, can expect the same level
of customer service best essay writing service reddit 2021 and product quality from a specific brand anywhere and at any time around the world. This marketing strategy also contributes to positive customer perceptions of a product (Levitt, 1983). For example, if a company has a strong reputation and brand identity, as Apple and Microsoft do, taking a standardized approach to global marketing can be advantageous. Positive referencing can indicate an increase in sales all over the world. Another benefit associated with the standardization approach is cost reduction, which translates to economies of scale. The logic goes that selling large quantities of the same and non-adapted products, as well as purchasing non-customized product in bulk, results in a lower cost per unit (Wilken & Sinclair, 2011). Other advantages of economies of scale include improved R&D, lower investment costs, and lower marketing operational costs. Furthermore, standardization is more reasonable than adaptation, particularly in industries where trade barriers, such as laws and regulations, are being reduced (Iacobucci, 2014). Furthermore, implementing a standardization strategy assists entities in focusing on a consistent marketing mix, rather than a single product or service. As a result, there are numerous opportunities for businesses to improve the quality of their products and services. Employees can be trained to improve product quality by focusing on a standardized product, attracting companies to invest in R&D, equipment, and technologies that can sustain the superiority of the standardized product or service. Based on the preceding discussion, it is clear that the adaptation approach fails in terms of economies of scale and expected quality. Purchasing customized product components or adapted raw materials logically raises the unit cost, especially if the procurement is seasonal and small in scale.
Despite the numerous benefits mentioned above, standardization has a number of drawbacks for businesses. As previously stated, different markets have different needs or preferences (Robertson, 1995). As a result, selling a unified product across the globe lacks product differentiation. As a result, competitors can gain market share by tailoring their products and services to meet the preferences and needs of a specific segment or market. Companies that use standardization become vulnerable to unhealthy competition because different markets or countries have different tastes and needs (Pearce & Robinson, 2014). For example, Walmart's standardization strategy contributed to the company's inability to easily transition from a local to a global position (Soni, 2015). When entering foreign markets, multinational corporations faced numerous challenges, including China, Japan, South Korea, Brazil, and Germany (Soni, 2015). The underlying reason is that the company maintained its marketing mix in the United States, which is characterized by inventory control, low pricing, and a diverse product offering. Such a standardized approach failed to synchronize in foreign markets with diverse supply chains and customer habits (Loeb, 2013; Wal-Mart, 2016). Indeed, Wal-failure Mart's in Germany has become a model in strategic management and marketing literature for how not to enter a foreign market. One of the challenges that multinational corporations face is that they rely on economies of scale, which are constrained by the adaptation approach. Companies with factories all over the world must fundamentally adapt their operations to local market regulations. Apple, for example, must modify its CSR and labor policies to meet the varying requirements in the United States and Asia. In other words, the adaptation approach is advantageous when a company is required to tailor its operations and policies to comply with trade barriers, such as those imposed by the European Union and the United States. The advantages and disadvantages of local adaptation and global standardization approaches in global marketing are summarized in Table 1.
The benefits and drawbacks of local adaptation and global standardization approaches:
Globalization of Standards
Global image coherence
Establishment in less time
Monitoring integrated communication effectively
Advertisement effectiveness may suffer as a result of this.
There is little flexibility and reactivity.
Neglecting local needs may result in a negative reaction.
Adaptation on the Ground
Enhanced consumer engagement
Respect for local culture and consumer preferences
Outstanding local image
It takes time.
Implementation takes too long.
Identifying local needs is a challenge.
Analysis of Global Companies' Marketing Mix
The current section examines the marketing strategies of two multinational corporations, Google and McDonald's. Furthermore, the section delves into the implementation of glocalization strategies in the two companies, with a focus on the levels of local adaptation and global standardization approaches to global marketing. In their respective industries, the two companies are well-known for their market dominance and global popularity. A cross-industry analysis provides a detailed understanding of the two concepts, which improves understanding of the two marketing concepts.
McDonald's Marketing Strategy
McDonald's is a global fast food franchise founded in the United States. McDonald's is a great example and model for franchising (McDonald's, 2016). Despite the fact that it was not the first global franchise, McDonald's exemplifies franchising success. In the same context, the company demonstrates the importance of glocalization, especially in the competitive fast food industry. Despite the volatile nature of the fast food industry, the company has proven to be a successful global company through the use of a glocalization strategy. In the context of strategic management in general, and marketing management in particular, a company's success is measured in terms of customer satisfaction, higher performance, higher market share, a stronger corporate brand, job satisfaction, and higher profit margins in comparison to its competitors (McDonald's, 2016). Burger King and KFC are two of its competitors. McDonald's is a globalized company that has demonstrated the benefits of both local adaptation and a global standardization approach to global marketing. McDonald's has effectively managed its franchise model using both approaches, with over 36,0 outlets in over 115 countries (McDonald's, 2016). As a result, the company provides consistent product branding and customer experience while still allowing for locally relevant menu items and service variations in various countries around the world (Koller, 27). Furthermore, the company shoots advertisements in over ten different languages, featuring customized products tailored to local markets. In order to maintain its competitive advantage in the Gulf, the company launched the McArabia sandwich. In addition, the company launched McVeggie in India.
The global expansion and product localization are at the heart of McDonald's success. The company's glocalization strategy allows it to maintain its global brand while tailoring certain aspects of its menu items to a specific local market. According to Kotler et al. (29), the company tailors some of its products and services to a specific culture and region in order to meet local needs. In other words, the company employs strategies for both local adaptation and global standardization. As a result, the company sells its products all over the world without sacrificing the tastes of its domestic market. McDonald's also maintains consistent quality across all of its locations and ensures that the cultural needs and preferences of local customers are met. The local adaptation approach emphasizes cultural sensitivity and local tastes, including taboos and eating habits. As a result, the company launched a vegetable-focused menu in India.
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Google's Marketing Strategy
Google Inc. is a multinational technology corporation that provides Internet-based services such as software, cloud computing, and search (Google Inc., 2016). The company has a long-standing reputation around the world, making it one of the most expensive and popular brands in the world. Because of its global reach and product uniqueness, Google is an excellent example of a company that relies heavily on standardization. However, the company tailors its compensation strategies to local labor policies (Ernst & Young, 2013). Furthermore, Google is a globalised entity that uses the standardisation approach in global marketing. Its office layout is unique, with the goal of encouraging innovation and improving the working environment for its employees. Despite the office's uniqueness, its branch offices share some features, such as murals and decorations that reflect the local personality.
Similarities and Dissimilarities
The primary distinction between the two businesses is that they operate in different industries, namely the fast-food industry (McDonalds) and the telecommunications/software industry (Google). Despite differences in the underlying industries, the two companies demonstrate the successful implementation of the glocalization strategy. Google and McDonald's are at the forefront of developing effective marketing strategies when it comes to operating and launching new products or services. Both companies, to varying degrees, implement the glocalization strategy, such as advertising, the use of local languages on regionalized websites, and the provision of products that match local preferences, as in the case of McDonald's in India and Arabic countries. In terms of global standardization, Google ranks first in both local adaptation and global standardization. A person migrating from Asia to the United States expects to find the same service provided by the Google search engine. Google used the language translator to improve accessibility while maintaining product standardization in an effort to improve quality and product uniqueness. Unlike McDonald's, Google's marketing strategy includes little product promotion. Because of its market dominance and global popularity, it is able to reduce its investment in extensive product promotion. However, the company does occasionally promote its new products. Google's effective standardization implementation is reflected in the company's minimal promotion in the marketing mix. As a result, the company spends less on product promotion than McDonald's.
Google and McDonald's: A Critical Analysis
Globalized companies, such as McDonald's and Google, face new challenges in their global marketing efforts on a regular basis. According to Koller (27), the challenges that these companies face are primarily related to the management of their marketing strategies. The two companies are confronted with the challenge of providing superior services and products in their respective industries, as well as brands with a positive image and distinct brand identity. Companies target their resource allocation and investment decisions in order to maintain their competitive advantages and contribute significantly to the success of multinational corporations. Given the preceding literature review, it is clear that standardization reduces the cost of product promotion in a company's marketing mix. It is clear in the case of Google, which has a single coherent global brand. As a result, companies that use a global standardization approach are more likely to save money on product promotion and invest the savings in areas such as R&D and the acquisition of new technologies and equipment.
Glocalization is a marketing or business expansion strategy that strikes a balance between globalization and localization strategies. Glocalization strategies, in essence, entail acting globally while remaining sensitive to local demands or cultural differences. There is a growing debate about whether brands should approach the global market with an adapted or standardized approach. Proponents of the adaptive approach argue that it improves flexibility, responsiveness, and consumer engagement while respecting local culture and expectations. Supporters of the standardized approach, on the other hand, argue that it increases economies of scale and lowers operational and marketing costs. The adapted global marketing approach's popularity is based on the assertion that different countries or markets differ significantly in terms of their consumers' needs, culture, product preference, spending preference, and shopping habits. As a result, global marketing strategies must be tailored to meet the needs of the target market while respecting cultural differences. Google Inc. and McDonald's are two examples of globalized companies that have adopted the glocalization strategy, albeit with varying degrees of local adaptation and global standardization. Unlike Google, which primarily employs the global standardization approach, McDonald's employs the standardized global marketing approach by leveraging its global brand image while also adapting its operations and marketing strategies to local markets. In conclusion, either standardized or tailored global marketing strategies should not be implemented in isolation. As a result, a hybrid of the two global marketing approaches should be used. Finally, multinational corporations should think globally but act locally, implying that they should implement a standardized global marketing strategy as well as a local adaptation strategy at the same time.
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